Three notable nagas are Shesha (or Ananta), who in the Hindu myth of creation supports Narayana (Vishnu) as he lies on the cosmic ocean and on whom the created world rests; Vasuki, who was used as a churning rope to churn the cosmic ocean of milk; and Takshaka, the tribal chief of the snakes. In modern Hinduism the birth of the serpents is celebrated on Naga-panchami in the month of Shravana (July–August).
The female nagas (naginis or nagis) are serpent princesses of striking beauty. The dynasties of Manipur in northeastern India, the Pallavas in southern India, and the ruling family of Funan (ancient Indochina) each claimed an origin in the union of a human being and a nagi.
In Buddhism, nagas are often represented as door guardians or, as in Tibet, as minor deities. The naga king Muchalinda, who sheltered the Buddha from rain for seven days while he was deep in meditation, is beautifully depicted in the 9th–13th century Mon-Khmer Buddhas of what are now Thailand and Cambodia. In Jainism the Tirthankara (saviour) Parshvanatha is always shown with a canopy of naga hoods above his head.
In art, nagas are represented in a fully zoomorphic form, as hooded cobras having one to seven or more heads; as human beings with a many-hooded snake canopy over their heads; or as half human, with the lower part of the body below the navel coiled like a snake and a canopy of hoods over the heads. Often they are shown in postures of adoration, as one of the major gods or heroes is shown accomplishing some miraculous feat before their eyes.